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Magazine: Yoga Journal
Issue: January/February 1997
Author: Peter Ochiogrosso

DREAM YOGA

MASTERS OF THIS ESOTERIC PRACTICE TELL US WE CAN WAKE UP FROM LIFE'S DREAM WHILE WE'RE ASLEEP.

My interest in dream work stems from a time some years ago when I was involved in Eckankar, a syncretistic American religion that relies heavily on doing spiritual work while traveling through the dream state. I kept a detailed dream notebook and learned to pay special attention to dreams that might have spiritual significance. Although I never encountered any of the Dream Masters we were told might appear in our dreams to work with us-like the mysterious Tibetan adept Rebazar Tarzs-I did have at least one startling lucid dream, shortly after Christmas 1989, without realizing what it was at the time.

In the dream, I was walking through a mountain house made of barn wood, searching for someone whose identity was unclear to me. As I went from room to room, I kept repeating excitedly, "I'm dreaming and I'm not waking up. I can't believe it!" As I said those words, the rooms suddenly became much brighter, as if lit up by a dream sun, and I saw their contents in full color. I woke from the dream feeling completely exhilarated, even though I'm a chronic morning depressive. In retrospect, I realize that I may have been searching for my spiritual guide in the dream, and that the experiences of bright light and joyfulness may have been indications of being on the right track.

But for all my efforts, I was never able to dream lucidly with any regularity. In fact, although I continued to keep a dream journal and review my dreams regularly, my ability to dream lucidly soon ceased altogether. In the process of researching lucid dreaming, however, I discovered that other spiritual traditions also have teachings on dreams, although they offer very different emphases. Dreams are important in the Hebrew Bible, where it is written, "If there is a prophet among you, I the Lord . . . will speak to him in a dream." Muhammad received the instruction to have all Muslims pray five times daily while he lay asleep beside his wife, Aisha, and the Muslim call to prayer, "There is no god but God and Muhammad is his Prophet," was given to Abdullah ben Zayd in a dream. More specific techniques for using dreams as a part of spiritual practice- practices we might call "dream yoga"-occur also in Sufism, Taoism, Hinduism, and Tibetan Buddhism. What I eventually learned from studying the role of dreams in these traditions changed my thinking about dream work altogether.

The Hindu View

According to Hindu mythology, this world is the dream of Vishnu. Thus the world itself can be seen as a dream and dreams as just another manifestation of Maya. Perhaps because of this, the Indian texts I read didn't seem to provide special techniques for dream work. A typical sentiment, as expressed in the Bhagavata Purana, for example, says, "Even though apparently awake, one is still asleep if one sees multiplicity. Wake up from the dream of ignorance and see the one Self. The Self alone is real." The Yogavasistha describes dreaming sleep as an opportunity for human beings to create as the gods create, by sending forth images. The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad says of the dream world: "In that land there are no lakes, no lotus-ponds, nor streams; but [the Spirit of man] creates his own lakes, his lotus-ponds, and streams. For the Spirit of man is Creator."

The late Swami Sivananda Radha developed a much more practical approach to dream yoga. Until her recent death, she taught classes in dream study for more than 30 years, often at her ashram in British Columbia. Like most Eastern-oriented dream workers, Swami Radha rejected the Freudian model of the unconscious as a seething cauldron of repressed, unacceptable desires and impulses. In her book Realities of the Dreaming Mind, she describes a "Guru within" who, in daytime consciousness, disappears behind a veil of distractions and "mental gymnastics" but who emerges more freely during sleep. "Dreams have a marvelous way of showing us the dirt that is in our water pipes," she writes, "how to identify it, and how to remove it." Eventually, she says, working with dreams can "open the doors to the Divine within."

Through an elaborate but clearly learnable discipline, Swami Radha insists, we can glean valuable messages and guidance from our dreams. Like many dream workers, she advises writing down dreams first thing in the morning-or your thoughts if you can't remember your dreams. She also suggests that you search out key words and make a study of your personal symbols. "We do not depend on someone else to interpret our aches and pains," she insists. "There can be no generalization about symbols, because we all develop our own symbolic language." But she also suggests using an approach pioneered by Jeremy Taylor and Montague Ullman, in which group members take turns commenting on each others' dreams in order to get the widest possible range of interpretations.

Swami Radha's practice of dream yoga, however, does not rely on interpretation. It is based on a combination of meditative techniques drawn from Hindu and Tibetan yogic sources. To begin, she suggests you lie on your left side, with one leg drawn up, closing your right nostril with your left hand. You can train yourself to observe your thoughts and breath, watching yourself fall asleep. Try holding a sacred object in your hand-a rosary or a pebble from the beach, for example-throughout the night.

The central practice involves visualization and mantra recitation. Any image of the Divine Source will work, but Swami Radha recommends a Divine Light "surrounding your body or your entire bed like a cocoon as you sleep." Just before falling asleep, begin to repeat your mantra or a line from a favorite prayer, and try to continue this throughout the night. "Many people are able to manipulate dreams that are at a psychological level," she writes. "But if you want to step out of the psychological and have contact with the Divine, you have to maintain your focus on the Divine and surrender to the wisdom within. Then your dreams will change in a way that is quite dramatic." She cautions that this can take time, however, since most of us have neglected our inner beings.

Swami Radha's approach requires the kind of exacting concentration that raises the whole issue of whether this form of yoga is adaptable to an activity most Westerners associate with relaxation and unconsciousness. Swami Radha's book is accessible enough, and some of its early chapters may even seem simplistic to anyone who has already done the kind of dream work prescribed by the popularizers of lucid dreaming, Patricia Garfield and Stephen LaBerge. But by the time I got to her concluding section on specific dream yoga practices and spiritual dreams, I began to question whether the extensive commitment of time and energy that she calls for might not be outside the grasp, or interest, of someone working a full-time job and raising a family-or a writer who needs to get a reasonable night's sleep in order to work.

Sufism Meets Jung

Compared to most Hindus, Sufis appear to take a more serious interest in dreams as guideposts along the spiritual path. The interpretation of dreams, including dreams that involve dialogues with one's teachers, have formed an important aspect of some Sufi orders since their earliest days. The 12th-century Sufi Najd ad-din Kubra (1145-1220) worked extensively with dream interpretation, citing the "constant direction of a shaykh who explains the meanings of one's dreams and visions." And Baha ad-din Naqshband of Bukhara (d. 1389), who lent his name to the Naqshbandi Order of Sufism, was renowned as an interpreter of dreams. It is even said that he would accept a dervish only after he had had a dream indicating that the person was an appropriate disciple.

Still, even Naqshbandis do not teach anything approaching yogic techniques for recalling or influencing one's dreams. Llewellyn Vaughan-Lee is a London-born member of the Naqshbandis now living in northern California and the author of several books on Sufism, dream work, and Jungian psychology, including In the Company of Friends: Dreamwork Within a Sufi Group (Golden Sufi Center). When asked if Sufism employs specific techniques for dream yoga, he replies, "No. If one thinks of the dream as being an inner wisdom that wants to communicate with you, you just have to learn to listen. I'm a great believer that if a dream wants to be heard, it will make itself heard. People say that they forget their dreams when they wake up. But if you have a really important dream, you will remember it. The Higher Self within you will make you remember it."

After becoming involved in the practice of Sufism 23 years ago when he met his teacher, Irina Tweedie (herself the student of an Indian Naqshbandi), Vaughan-Lee took a doctorate in Jungian psychology, a field that most dream workers find much more congenial and useful than its Freudian counterpart. "Much of the work on the Sufi path is psychological," Vaughan-Lee says from his office in Inverness, California, "and Jung offers a wonderful model of the Western psyche. In Western psychology, he offers the most complete spiritual approach to dreams." But Vaughan-Lee also discovered that "people on the spiritual path have dreams that are not just psychological, but which have another dimension. Many people will have ancient Sufi symbols in their dreams without consciously realizing from where they've come."

As an example, he cites a dream told to him by a young woman in Minnesota. In the dream, he says, "She was in a very loving embrace, and then she was taken into a warehouse where rows of old men were carding wool. They had long white beards, and as they ran their fingers through their beards, they carded this wool." The woman had been brought up as a Christian and did not enter the Sufi path until some time after having this dream. At the time, says Vaughan-Lee, "She had no conscious knowledge of what her unconscious knew only too well, which is the whole Sufi symbolism of wool [the literal meaning of the Arabic root suf] as having to do with the Path, and the melting of the Path having to do with becoming as soft as wool."

Vaughan-Lee distinguishes many different kinds of dreams, including mind dreams ("like a cow chewing the cud, the mind digests what has happened to us" in a way that is best forgotten); purely psychological dreams (which we should work with); archetypal dreams (which draw on the collective rather than the personal unconscious); past-life dreams; and warning or prophetic dreams. Vaughan-Lee makes his biggest distinction, though, between psychological dreams and spiritual dreams, like one in which the ninth-century Sufi al-Bistami asked God, "What is the way to reach You?" God responded, "The renunciation of self. Renounce the self and just walk in a straight way." According to Vaughan-Lee, spiritual dreams "describe inner happenings that take us beyond the psyche into the inner chamber of the heart, where the lover and Beloved meet and merge in love's oneness."

At other times, students may receive teaching in the night "which comes through on a dream level but does not actually originate in the unconscious," says Vaughan-Lee. "It's on a different plane of consciousness. On the level of the soul, we may meet teachers or perceive higher realities, and sometimes we remember these experiences in the form of a dream." He recalls speaking at the Sufi Bookstore in lower Manhattan, located near the mosque over which the late Lex Hixon presided for many years. Lex had passed away only a couple of months before, and a number of his dervishes described dreams of receiving spiritual instruction from their shaykh after his death.

Also like Swami Radha,Vaughan-Lee stresses the value of interpreting dreams within a group setting. "The group can collectively affirm dreams that are bewildering to the mind and threatening to the ego," he writes. "This provides a tremendous reassurance, which helps the dreamer with any doubts that may beset him." Although Vaughan-Lee acknowledges that group dream work is "slightly unorthodox in most Sufi circles," I witnessed Lex Hixon (from an entirely different lineage) doing the same thing in his mosque. Most Sufi texts do say that the dervish should tell his dreams only to the shaykh, but Vaughan-Lee, who learned the group technique from Irina Tweedie, continues to use it, because "it is really pointing away from the idea that the teacher is the only person who can understand anything. It points back to the wisdom within everybody's psyche, from which the dreams come, and in a way gives a space for the inner wisdom of the dream, which everybody has within them, to be valued and accepted."

Taoist Dreaming

Taoism and Tibetan Buddhism offer very different approaches to dream work than either the Hindu or Sufi traditions, but they require even greater commitments of time and energy. Both traditions emphasize that the central use of dream yoga is to awaken. "The whole purpose of the Doctrine of Dreams is to stimulate the yogin to arise from the Sleep of Delusion," writes W.Y. Evans-Wentz, one of the earliest translators of Tibetan Buddhist texts. "Nature as a whole is the Dream of the One Mind; and until man conquers Nature and thereby transcends maya, he will remain asleep, dreaming the Dream of Ignorance."

Taoists emphasize the paradoxical and interdependent nature of dreaming and so-called reality. Chuang Tzu, the Taoist sage famous for wondering whether he was a butterfly dreaming he was Chuang Tzu or Chuang Tzu dreaming he was a butterfly, says, "Someday comes the Great Awakening, when we realize that this life is no more than a dream. . . . The great Confucius and you are both a dream. And I, who say all this is a dream, I, too, am a dream."

Both Tibetan Buddhism and Taoism contain specific techniques for dream yoga. Taoist dream practice, called True Dream, Dream Wandering, or Night Practice, employs sleep and dream as a form of meditation. According to Charles Belyea, an American Taoist teacher, dream yoga is one of the five central practices of Orthodox Taoism. Belyea studied Buddhism and Taoism in Taiwan for many years before founding Five Branches Institute, College of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Santa Cruz, California, in 1984. He teaches what he calls Orthodox Taoism, an ancient tradition of Taoism as it existed before being influenced by Buddhism. That system, according to Belyea, views sleep "as a natural time for the practice of meditation." He emphasizes that the prerequisite for any dream work is sufficient sound sleep achieved through rest, exercise, proper eating, and an occasional nap. "The first level of practice is to establish healthy and harmonious sleep. This means spending our days in a way that doesn't exhaust us. Sleep must be respected and entered into, not be seen as a collapse of wakefulness or a 'giving in' to exhaustion."

Once that harmony is achieved, Belyea writes in his newsletter, Frost Bell, "we can rest very deeply, restore ourselves, and 'discover' the Body we have in dreams. This Dream Body lacks many of the limits of our waking body. . . . An hour of meditation in dream feels equal to a month- long retreat of practice while awake."

But unlike most other dream workers, Belyea does not believe that dream content should be paramount. "Meeting a great teacher or spiritual being, curing a constitutional illness, or traveling to China in a dream is not the focus of practice. Manipulation of the mind or imagination are not part of our practice. Such exertions are antithetical to the View of Taoist dreamers."

What Taoist dream practice does seek to do, in Belyea's view, is help one learn to die. "When you fall asleep every night, in fact, you're having a small death," he says. "Just as we can approach sleep as an expression of exhaustion, we can experience death as an expression of exhaustion. But Taoists feel there is an alternative. We can welcome sleep as an alternating rhythm with waking, and we can, in a sense, welcome death as an alternating rhythm with life. Meditation practice, sleep, and death have much in common. Productivity, wakefulness, and life also have a lot in common."

As for dream interpretation in the Sufi mode, although Belyea doesn't feel it would be "integral to understanding the practice of dreaming," he acknowledges that the Chinese, like most people, are fascinated with what dreams might mean. And, he adds, "there's no reason to think that if the waking world can be divided into so many little worlds, the dreaming world cannot also be divided up. Images like Shambhala or P'eng-lai- realms of existence where only the immortals or the enlightened live- these are places in dreams just as there are places in waking life. The difference is that in getting there when you're awake, you have to cross space, but in getting there while you're asleep, you have to cross time."

Tibetans and Greeks

By all accounts, the spiritual tradition that has developed the most elaborate practices around dreaming is the one that encompasses the Bön and Buddhist teachings of Tibet. Perhaps the most renowned source, The Yoga of the Six Doctrines, first translated into English by W.Y. Evans- Wentz, contains a chapter on the "Yoga of the Dream State." In his introduction, Evans-Wentz traces the text back to the tradition of Padmasambhava, the legendary tantric adept from India who is credited with bringing Buddhism to Tibet in the eighth century. He also suggests, however, that some Tibetan lamas feel the doctrine derives from the "inconceivably ancient" Mahamaya Tantra, whose author is unknown. In any event, the text outlines the basics of Tibetan dream yoga as it is still taught by a number of living lamas and includes the most familiar technique, often repeated out of context by Western dream workers like Stephen LaBerge, author of Lucid Dreaming: "Under all conditions during the day, hold to the concept that all things are of the substance of dreams and that you must realize their true nature."

I say "out of context" because there's much more to it than that. The two best-known modern lamas who teach Tibetan dream yoga in the West are probably Namkhai Norbu and Tenzin Wangyal. Norbu, the author of Dream Yoga and the Practice of Natural Light (Snow Lion), is the senior of the two, but he comes infrequently to the U.S.

Norbu's book is filled with fascinating accounts of his dreams, in which he tells of meeting various teachers, living and dead, being instructed in secret practices, and shown secret texts known as milam termas ("dream treasures"). Norbu was able to transcribe these termas from memory on awakening, and in one case he dreamed and wrote down the same lengthy text in separate dreams three days apart; subsequent examination showed the two texts to be identical. In another dream, while visiting the site of ancient ruins near Mount Kailash in Tibet, Norbu dreamed of reaching into a hole in the earth and extracting a valuable metal sculpture of a garuda- the ancient Indian mythological figure that is part eagle and part human. While breaking camp after awakening, Norbu thought he recognized a part of the landscape from his dream. On closer inspection, he discovered a hole in the ground and, after considerable digging, unearthed a metal garuda just like the one in his dream. The Western disciple who edited and wrote an introduction to Norbu's book is Michael Katz, a New York psychologist who now conducts dream workshops derived from Norbu's teachings. Katz claims to have had similar dream experiences to Norbu's, mostly when he was on retreat and away from daily concerns.

Norbu's book devotes most of its space to the "practice of natural light"- a rarefied discipline aimed at achieving awareness not only during dreams but all through the night. In his book, Norbu gives elaborate instructions for visualizing and meditating on the Tibetan syllable ah (see illustration on page 67), in the center of your body, keeping awareness of it while falling asleep. (The important point, he says, is that you associate the letter with the sound of ahhh.) "If one is capable of falling asleep like this," Norbu writes, "one would find the full presence of the state of natural light. One falls asleep, and one is asleep with virtually full awareness. If one has this presence of mind when one enters into the state of dreams, it is easy to recognize that one is dreaming." Achieving that presence or awareness is clearly not a simple thing, and even Norbu adds, in something of an understatement, "It may not happen right away; some may arrive slowly at this result." And some may never get there at all. "Having a bare awareness during the sleep state," Katz says, "entails having a consciousness or awareness that we're not accustomed to. We mostly dream unconsciously."

In Katz's workshops, he seeks to induce lucidity in participants through hypnotic trance, and claims that a high percentage of clients have lucid dream experiences within what he calls "guided nap periods." Trance induction was not typically used in the Tibetan system, however. "It may have been more prevalent in the early Greek tradition of dream work," Katz admits. "The Greeks had literally thousands of sites where the dream seekers would go to dream," often in the hope of finding cures to their ailments.

Tibetan dream yoga is very closely linked with the Tibetan Buddhist system and culture, says Katz. "You use specific visualizations, mantras associated with various deities, and practices tied in with the Tibetan tradition. I've talked with enough Tibetan lamas to know that, from their perspective, you don't just go out and try to be lucid in your dreams unless you're using that as part of your spiritual practice. But I don't think they appreciate how much value there is in just having an enlivening experience or an intensely creative experience [through lucid dreaming]-how much that is worth in our very institutionalized world."

Shamanic Buddhism

Apparently, when it comes to dream work, East and West have very different notions of how to proceed and to what end-and I was beginning to wonder if ever the twain would meet. Tenzin Wangyal, still in his 30s, is considerably younger than Namkhai Norbu and, at least on some levels, more plugged in to Western culture. He not only teaches in the U.S. and Latin America but also runs a dharma center, called Ligmincha, in Charlottesville, Virginia, complete with its own World Wide Web site. Although he makes only a passing reference to dream yoga in his book, Wonders of the Natural Mind: The Essence of Dzogchen in the Native Bön Tradition of Tibet (Station Hill), Wangyal is currently assembling a book of his teachings on sleep and dream yogas that may include detailed instruction in the complex Tibetan techniques.

According to Wangyal, dream yoga begins with what are called the "four formal preparations," which can be practiced by anyone with the will and determination to do so:

1. Go through the day understanding all your experiences as being of the substance of dreams.

2. Apply rule number one to specific people, objects, or states to which you feel desire and attachment. By recognizing them as a dream, you can weaken your attachment to them. "We say everything is a dream," Wangyal adds. "Anything you're attached to, anything that holds your mind, we emphasize that those things are dreams. When you have a cup of coffee, it's dream coffee. Drive the dream car, meet with the dream boss, have a dreamlike problem. If you see everything like a dream, things happen to you like a dream, and what results will be like a dream too, and it won't have such a strong effect. It's a form of detachment. "

3. As you're lying in bed before going to sleep, review your day as if you were reviewing a dream. Observe how each action, person, object, or state of being-and your attachment to them-is like a dream. Then create an intention to stay aware during your dreams.

4. Immediately upon waking, review the night to see if you remember any dreams and whether you were lucid within a dream. If you were, try to generate a sense of joy and accomplishment about the practice. If you weren't successful, then generate an even stronger intention to be more consistent in the practice during the next night.

In addition, Wangyal suggests using certain breathing practices before going to sleep to calm and purify yourself, followed by guru yoga, a common practice in Tibetan Buddhism which involves merging your mind with the mind of the teacher. For more advanced students, he divides the night into four practice periods: one right before going to sleep, the other three following at roughly two-hour intervals. Each of the four segments involves one of four particular body positions, ways of breathing, and visualizations located in particular chakras.

Wangyal was trained by both Buddhist and Bön masters, and his approach incorporates the monastic discipline of the former with the latter's shamanic spirit. Born in Amritsar, India, after his parents had fled the Chinese invasion of Tibet in 1959, Wangyal first began to experience the fruits of dream yoga at age 15, while studying at a monastery. But only in the past 10 years, he says, has it had a deep effect on his spiritual practice. Because he works both with individual dharma students and, in weekend and week-long workshops, with a wide range of European and American students, including a high percentage of psychotherapists and healers, Wangyal is well situated to observe the different ways in which Tibetans and Westerners approach dream work. "The goal of dream yoga is to achieve enlightenment," he says by phone from his center in Charlottesville. "That's very clear. And I don't think the goal of psychoanalysis is to achieve enlightenment. It's more like [trying to achieve] a healthy samsara."

That's a running theme with Wangyal, who says that the main problem of Western dream work is that it tends to reinforce our distorted view of reality. In fact, in the Tibetan scheme of things, learning to be lucid or aware within one's dreams is merely "a beginning stage, very basic." Part of the difficulty, he says, is that LaBerge and Garfield "talk about all the adventures you can have. You can have sex in a dream. You can improve your health in a dream. If you have a mathematics problem, you can work on that in a dream. They go into all the worldly aspects of dreaming. They don't look into the spiritual dynamic of dream yoga. When we are awake, we do so many things to mess up ourselves; they're learning to do the same thing in dreams."

Both Wangyal and Norbu distinguish between different kinds of dreams. The most common variety are those that derive from "karmic traces," the residue of mental tensions and entanglements that arise in the course of the day. These dreams spring from events, according to Norbu, that "touched the person deeply and left traces of the tension, fear, or other strong emotion." The more significant variety are "dreams of clarity," which arise as a result of clearing away the distraction of karmic traces through the persistent practice of dream yoga, and breaking through to a level of direct spiritual insight or teaching. To Wangyal, dream yoga is all about learning to achieve those dreams of clarity. "When the dreamer is freer of karmic traces and the dream comes from a deeper part [of consciousness]," he says, "there's a chance to have dreams that are purer, and one of the ways these dreams manifest is in teaching." One of the goals of Tibetan dream yoga, then, is the same as that which Sufis like Vaughan-Lee seek to achieve in a much less elaborate fashion: the reception of dream teachings.

Spirit Meets Psyche

The difficulty of translating Eastern philosophy and practice into the Western mindset is something that Steven Tainer has long wrestled with. Based in the San Francisco Bay area, Tainer studied Dzogchen with Tarthang Tulku and Namkhai Norbu and has also studied Taoism and Confucianism over the past 25 years. He sees his job as somehow teaching Westerners who lead extremely busy lives to access the essence of Eastern teachings created in and for vastly different environments. In Tibet, he points out, sleep and dream yogas were essentially retreat practices, meant to be taught apart from the hurly-burly of daily life. Because waking up three times a night to practice can result in lost sleep, most Westerners may find it extremely impractical.

But there's an even deeper problem, as Tainer sees it, which is that Eastern and Western practitioners begin from very different initial premises in their overall approach to working with dreams. "The starting point for Westerners is the isolated self," he says. "The starting point for these other traditions is the fact of connection. If you don't believe in connection to a larger Reality as a basic fact, then your agenda in life is to maximize personal values: creative impulses, reveries, daydreams, poetic musings. None of these have value to people who take all human existence as being about the issue of either enhancing the appreciation of connection or losing track of connection."

But what about those Westerners who are interested in pursuing dream work from an Eastern perspective? Is it feasible for someone with a Western sensibility-someone who gets not only great delight but also great insight from the life of the imagination, from literature and film and art and music-to pursue this kind of practice? "That's perhaps the most interesting question you could ask," Tainer allows. "But I don't know what the answer is," he adds with a laugh. "I think the answer is, We'll find out."

Tibetan and Chinese yogis may criticize the self-focused meanderings of the creative imagination, but the insight that we are all "dreaming the Dream of Ignorance" has been shared by a number of Western artists, from Shakespeare to Kafka. The best productions of the creative imagination have always tried to rouse us from the dreamlike lethargy of ordinary existence. The 17th-century Spanish playwright and poet Calderon, whose best-known play translates as Life Is a Dream, put it this way: "What is life? An illusion, fiction, passing shadow . . . for all of life's a dream and dreams themselves are only part of dreaming."

On this point, at least, it seems that East and West agree. Western artists and Eastern adepts alike point out the insubstantial, dreamlike quality of our waking life. But only the yogis and seers of the East have discovered a true dream yoga-a practice that shows us how dreams themselves can be the path of awakening from the greatest dream of all.

Peter Occhiogrosso is the board leader of Religion Concourse 2 for Prodigy (mfaw38a@prodigy.com). The paperback edition of his book The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions was recently published by Image Books.

RESOURCES
Yasodhara Ashram (Swami Radha)
P.O. Box 9
Kootenay Bay, BC V0B 1X0
Canada
(800) 661-8711

Golden Sufi Center
P.O. Box 428
Inverness, CA 94937
(415) 663-8773; fax 663-9128
GoldenSufi@aol.com

Ligmincha Institute
P.O. Box 1892
Charlottesville, VA 22903
(804) 977-6161; fax 977-2020
ligmincha@aol.com
http://www.comet.chv.va.us/ligmincha/
Charles Belyea Orthodox Daoism in America
P.O. Box 2932
Santa Cruz, CA 95063

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